A to Z Definitions

A quick reference to PECS terminology

.

NOTES

All margin depictions are approximate.

As a general rule, Paths must satisfy Margins criteria and Margins must satisfy Path Criteria.

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TERM / DEFINITION

EXAMPLE

ACSA

A triangular delineation in central Antarctica that connects South Pole (Axis), the outermost Pole of Inaccessibility (Centre) and the summit of Dome Argus (Summit) to form an Area.

A Crossing of Antarctica must contact any point or points on the ACSA

The ACSA is also a Margin

AID / AIDED

A generic term for any support or assistance used between the start and end of a journey

See also Support

ALTERNATE RETURN EXPEDITION [Path Variant]

An Expedition variant that travels out and back on a different route. The route has less than 90 degrees of arc between start and end

eg.

Ross Ice Shelf via Leverett Glacier to South Pole to Ross Ice Shelf via Axel Heiberg Glacier = Alternate Return South Pole Expedition

Ward Hunt Island to North Pole to Greenland = Alternate Return North Pole Expedition

Related variants:

  • Full Alternate Return Expedition
  • Inland Alternate Return Expedition
  • Mid-Ocean Alternate Return Expedition

ANTARCTICA

Antarctica is recognised by the Antarctic Treaty System as ‘the area below 60 degrees south latitude, including all ice shelves’. Ice shelves are an extension of Antarctic land ice and part of Antarctic geography and their outer perimeters, which are fronted by sea or annual sea ice, form part of the Antarctic coastline.

ARCTIC OCEAN

The Arctic Ocean (sometimes referred to as the Arctic or Polar Sea) is located mostly in the Arctic north polar region in the middle of the Northern Hemisphere and is almost completely surrounded by Eurasia and North America

ASSISTANCE / ASSISTED

A previous label used to describe the use of wind energy, dogs or machines for propulsion.

CARDINAL POINTS

The four primary directions of North, South, West and East (NSWE)

Intercardinals sit between each of the cardinals (NW, SE etc)

CIRCUMNAVIGATION [Path]

The generic name for a Path that encircles a recognisable geographical feature.

CIRCUMNAVIGATION [Path Variant]

A Circumnavigation Variant that encircles the outside of a geographical feature and:

  • includes at least 90% of its expanse
  • starts and ends at the same point

In the absence of Partial, Inner or Partial Inner in the label, Circumnavigation is implied

Related variants:

  • Partial Circumnavigation
  • Inner Circumnavigation
  • Partial Inner Circumnavigation

Circumnavigation of the Arctic Ocean

A Path that touches land in Greenland, Canada, USA, Henrietta or New Siberia Islands, Severnaya Zemlya, Franz Josef Land and Svalbard. May be discontinuous (multi-season).

CLOSED LOOP [Path Variant]

A Loop variant where the start and end points are the same.

A Closed Loop is measured by:

  • tallying its camp to camp distances including start and end points, or...
  • calculating its total enclosed area in relation to the total area of the host feature eg Greenland Ice Sheet

Related variant:

  • Loop


COASTAL / COASTLINE [Margin]

A generic term for any coastline that borders sea, sea ice, ice shelf or land

See also Inner Coastal and Outer Coastal

A Coastal Margin in Antarctica is any nautical or geographical coastline.


Where Coastal is used without a qualifier (Inner or Outer), Outer Coastal is implied

A Coastal Margin on the Arctic Ocean is any point on land
A Coastal Margin in Greenland is sea level

COMMUNICATIONS

Use of satellite phones, weather and ice forecasting and advisers on standby etc. are accepted forms of aid and not deemed as Support, unless used in combination with another form of aid. In many cases an expedition will not be permitted to proceed without multiple means of external communication.

Inter-team communication is not considered Support, unless used in combination with another form of aid.

Any journey communicating with the public is expected to use PECS.

See Code of Integrity for advice on communications usage.

CONTINUOUS

An unbroken journey that has not been fragmented into multiple legs, expeditions or detached seasons

See also Discontinuous

CROSSING [Path]

A generic term for a Path that crosses from one margin to an opposite margin via a recognisable point. Traverse is sometimes used as an alternative term however Crossing is the preferred terminology and where Traverse is used, the Crossing definition will be applied.

Related variants:

  • Full Crossing
  • Inland Crossing
  • Mid-Ocean Crossing
  • Double Crossing
  • Latitudinal Crossing of Greenland
  • Diagonal Crossing of Greenland
  • Longitudinal Crossing of Greenland
  • North-South Crossing of Greenland

CROSSING [Path Variant]

A Crossing variant that uses at least one Inner Coastal (Antarctica), Offshore (Arctic Ocean) or Inner Perimeter (Greenland) margin and does not use any Inland or Mid-Ocean margins

Related variants:

  • Full Crossing
  • Inland Crossing
  • Mid-Ocean Crossing

A Crossing of Antarctica

  • starts or ends on an inner coastline (see Inner Coastline)
  • start and end are equal to or greater than 90º of arc
  • contacts one or more points on the ACSA
  • may not start and end on the same ice shelf
eg. Hercules Inlet to South Pole to Bay of Whales = Crossing of Antarctica

A Crossing of the Arctic Ocean

  • may start or end up to 50km offshore if ice conditions dictate
  • start and end are equal to or greater than 90º of arc
  • contacts one or more points on the Northern Poles Line
eg. Cape Arktichevski to 30km offshore from Canada = Crossing of the Arctic Ocean


A journey may not pre-plan an offshore start/end and claim a Crossing.

A Crossing of Greenland or its ice sheet

  • starts or ends on an inner ice sheet perimeter
  • start and end are equal to or greater than 90º of arc in relation to its central point
  • includes a minimum of 400km in linear distance
eg. Point 660 to Isortoq = Crossing of Greenland


See also Horizontal, Diagonal, Longitudinal and North-South Crossings of Greenland.

DIAGONAL CROSSING of GREENLAND [Path Variant]

A Greenland Path variant where a straight line connecting the start and end points is greater than 22.5º angle in relation to true north/south and a line of latitude.

Greenland Crossing variants:

  • may only use the descriptor pertaining to its variant
  • are not obliged to use descriptors, all can labelled Crossing of Greenland or Greenland Crossing (so long as general Path criteria are satisfied)
  • can be Full, Inland or Double
Related Greenland Crossing variants:
  • Latitudinal Crossing
  • Longitudinal Crossing
  • North-South Crossing

DISCONTINUOUS

A journey broken across multiple legs, expeditions or detached seasons. Not continuous. A discontinuous journey is Supported.

See also Continuous

DISTANCES Calculation and recording

A journey’s distance pre-expedition should be calculated from start to end and include major Path deviations.

Standard routes such as Hercules Inlet to South Pole, Ward Hunt Island to North Pole and Point 660 to Isortoq coast across Greenland have recognised distances that should be used when promoting and immortalising journeys. Slight variants in these distances are acceptable.

PECS’s standardised method of recording total distance is the tallying of camp location intervals, including start and end points. In addition journeys can record finer waypoint intervals eg. 30 minutes, however the camp to camp tally will be the accepted distance.

Round-trips to retrieve a second sled or load should not be included in the tally.

Journeys on the Arctic Ocean should record straight line distance and a camp to camp tally that will take into consideration overnight drift.

DISTINCTION

An Unsupported journey that has achieved a first gender, first route, first mode of travel or first unsupported. A Distinction may also be awarded at the discretion of the PECS Committee.

DOGSLED [Mode of Travel]

A Mode of Travel using dogs for propulsion. Dogsled participants are often on foot or skis however they may not claim Ski as a Mode of Travel as supplies are hauled by dogs.

Doglsedding, Dogsledder

DOME ARGUS (Dome A)

Situated in east Antarctica, Dome Argus is the largest ice dome in Antarctica and the summit of the Antarctic plateau. 4093m / 13,428’ (Ellipsoidal) elevation. POS 80°28.5762’S, 76°50.2296’E.

Dome Argus is a corner point of the ACSA.

DOUBLE CROSSING [Path]

A Crossing variant that crosses and returns to or towards its original start point, starting and ending on an inner coastline, inner perimeter or off-shore coastline . Double Crossings cannot be Discontinuous.

eg. Point 660 to Isortoq to Point 660 = Double Crossing of Greenland

Related Crossing variants:

  • Full Double Crossing
  • Partial Double Crossing

EVACUATION

The removal of a soloist or team member by a third party during the course of a journey. Evacuation negates Unsupported status.

EXPEDITION [Generic]

Expedition is used as a generalised term for a journey, such as used in Polar Expeditions Classifications Scheme.

EXPEDITION [Path]

A Path that is not a Crossing, Circumnavigation or Loop.

Related variants:

  • Expedition
  • Reverse Expedition
  • Return Expedition
  • Alternate Return Expedition

EXPEDITION [Path Variant]

An Expedition Path variant that starts at an Inner Coastal (Antarctica), Offshore (Arctic Ocean) or Inner Perimeter (Greenland) margin and reaches a recognisable point

Related variants:

  • Full Expedition
  • Inland Expedition
  • Mid-Ocean Expedition



Expedition on Antarctica

A journey that starts or ends on an Inner Coastline and reaches a recognisable point.

eg. Hercules Inlet to South Pole = South Pole Expedition


Expedition on the Arctic Ocean

A journey that starts or ends within 50km Offshore and reaches a recognisable point

eg. 30km from Canada to North Pole = North Pole Expedition

Expedition on Greenland

A journey that starts or ends on the ice sheet perimeter and reaches a recognisable point.

eg. Point 660 to Summit Camp = Greenland Expedition

FIRST MODE

The first person or expedition to complete a journey using a new Mode of Travel

FIRST PERSON

The first person or journey to complete a new route or new mode of travel, or first gender

FIRST ROUTE / NEW ROUTE

A First/New Route must have an aesthetic quality as determined by the PECS Committee

In Antarctica:

  • follows a line that is distinctly different to any existing route, or..
  • pioneers a glacier or ice stream of 40km minimum length between a coastline and the plateau

EXAMPLE - Ski from Bay of Whales to South Pole via untrodden Liv Glacier

UNACCEPTABLE EXAMPLE - Ski from Pirrit Hills (near Patriot Hills) to South Pole

On the Arctic Ocean:

  • follows a path more than 10 degrees of longitude from any other route

In Greenland

  • pioneers a primary glacier or ice stream between a coastline and the plateau, or..
  • follows a line that is distinctly different to any existing route

EXAMPLE - Ski from Petermann Glacier to Isortoq

UNACCEPTABLE EXAMPLE - Ski from Point 660 to Ikkatteq (just north of Isortoq)

FOOT [Mode of Travel]

A Mode of Travel that utilises footwear or any footwear attachment for a stepping gait such as walking or running

FULL

A term used to denote a Full-Length/Width Expedition or Full-Length/Width Crossing.

A historical tribute to early journeys that used ships to access start and end points.

FULL CROSSING [Path Variant]

A Crossing variant that starts and ends at opposite Outer Coastal (Antarctica) or Coastal (Arctic Ocean, Greenland) margins and passes a recognisable point

Related variants:

  • Crossing
  • Inland Crossing
  • Mid-Ocean Crossing

A Full Crossing of Antarctica:

  • starts and ends on an outer coastline
  • has a minimum of 90 degrees of arc between start and end
  • contacts one or more points on the ACSA
  • may not start and end on the same ice shelf
eg. north Berkner Island to Bay of Whales = Full Crossing of Antarctica

A Full Crossing of the Arctic Ocean

  • starts and ends on land
  • has a minimum of 90 degrees of arc between start and end
  • contacts the Northern Poles Line (NPL)
  • crossings using seaborne access and exit must cover a minimum distance of 1500km
eg. Cape Arktichevski to Ward Hunt Island = Full Crossing of the Arctic Ocean

A Full Crossing of Greenland or its ice sheet:

  • starts or ends on an inner ice sheet perimeter
  • start and end are equal to or greater than 90o of arc in relation to its central point
  • includes a minimum of 400km in linear distance
eg. Kangerlussuaq to Isortoq = Full Crossing of Greenland

FULL EXPEDITION [Path Variant]

An Expedition variant that starts at an Outer Coastal (Antarctica) or Coastal (Arctic Ocean, Greenland) margin and reaches a recognisable point

Related variants:

  • Expedition
  • Inland Expedition
  • Mid-Ocean Expedition

A Full Expedition on Antarctica

  • is a One-Way, Reverse, Return or Alternate Return journey that travels to or from the South Pole or other significant point
  • starts or ends on an Outer Coastline
eg.
  • north Berkner Island to South Pole = Full South Pole Expedition
  • South Pole to Bay of Whales = Full Reverse South Pole Expedition
  • Bay of Whales to South Pole to Bay of Whales = Full Return South Pole Expedition
  • Bay of Whales to South Pole to Ross Island = Full Alternate Return South Pole Expedition

A Full Expedition on the Arctic Ocean

  • is a One-Way, Reverse, Return or Alternate Return journey, typically to or from the North Pole or other significant point
  • starts or ends on a coastline
eg.
Cape Arktichevski to North Pole = Full North Pole Expedition
North Pole to Ward Hunt Island = Full Reverse North Pole Expedition
Ward Hunt Island to North Pole to Ward Hunt Island = Full Return North Pole Expedition
Ward Hunt Island to North Pole to Greenland = Full Alternate Return North Pole Expedition

A Full Expedition on Greenland

  • a Greenland journey that does not cross the island or ice sheet
  • starts or ends on a coastline
eg. Kangerlussuaq to Summit Camp = Full Summit Camp Expedition

GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURE

Any recognisable feature that can be circumnavigated in its entirety eg. icecap, mountain range, ice dome at 3000m elevation, island, archipelago

GREENLAND

Greenland is the world's largest island, located between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans. Three-quarters of Greenland is covered by the world’s second largest ice sheet.

GREENLAND DYE STATIONS

Abandoned Distant Early Warning (DEW) Cold War radar stations. The DYE2 and DYE3 stations in Greenland offer historical interest and brief visits inside are not considered Support unless used as a weather shelter or removing artefacts (which could be used to repair equipment).

GREENLAND ICE SHEET

The ice sheet covering much of Greenland. Most journeys choose only to cross the ice sheet, a considerably less complex task than crossing the island coast to coast.

GROUNDING LINE / GROUNDING ZONE

A Grounding Line is the delineation at which glaciers start to float, however it is more of a zone due to tidal fluctuations.

A Grounding Zone is the region where ice transitions from grounded icecap to freely floating ice shelf, typically over several kilometres. A journey using Inner Coastal Margins must be within the Grounding Zone.

See also Margins

GUIDED

A guided journey is one that uses a guide or guides to manage and lead a team while the journey is underway. Guides often plan unique and committing journeys for their clients and as such a Guided journey is not classified as Supported unless it falls within Supported definitions. A Guided journey must make reference to its guided status in either the Label or Description.

ICE CAP

Generic term for a covering of ice over a large area

ICE SHEET

Geographical term for the world’s largest ice sheets including East Antarctic Ice Sheet, West Antarctic Ice Sheet and Greenland Ice Sheet.

ICE DIVIDE OF GREENLAND

The Greenland Ice Divide is the watershed ridge that runs north to south and divides the ice sheet into west and east.

The northern perimeter is at 81.00N 40.00W and 2000m elevation, the southern perimeter is at DMS 61o55’48”N, 44o49’48”W; DMM 61o55.8’, 44o40.8: DM 61.93 -44.68 and 2500m elevation. These points should be rounded within a 5km radius.

ICE SHELF

A floating sheet of fresh-water ice permanently or semi-permanently attached to a land mass. Ice shelves are an extension of land ice and their outer perimeters form part of the seaward coastline. Ice shelves also have a landward or inner coastline where they connect to land.

Most of the world's ice shelves are in Antarctica, marked in blue.

INLAND ICE

A term often used to describe the Greenland Ice Sheet

INLAND / INSIDE [Margin]

A Margin in Antarctica on land that does not start or end on any coastline and is on land.

A Margin in Greenland that starts above the ice sheet perimeter

INLAND CROSSING [Path Variant]

A Crossing variant that uses at least one Inland margin

Related variants:

  • Crossing
  • Full Crossing
  • Mid-Ocean Crossing
An Inland Crossing of Antarctica:
  • starts or ends inland
  • touches the ACSA
  • covers a minimum distance of 1500km
  • has a distance ratio between inward and outward legs of no greater than 60:40
eg. Hercules Inlet to South Pole to Vostok = Inland Crossing of Antarctica

An Inland Crossing of Greenland:

  • starts or ends above the ice sheet perimeter
  • covers at least 400km
eg. Start on the ice sheet above Isortoq to Kangerlussuaq = Inland Crossing of Greenland

INLAND EXPEDITION [Path Variant]

An Expedition variant that starts at an Inland (Antarctica and Greenland) margin and reaches a recognisable point.

Related variants:

  • Expedition
  • Full Expedition
  • Mid-Ocean Expedition

An Inland Expedition on Antarctica

  • starts on the Antarctic landmass inland of any coastline
  • reaches a recognisable point eg South Pole
eg. Novo to South Pole, Thiels Corner to South Pole, Vostok to South Pole = Inland South Pole Expedition


An Inland Expedition on Greenland

  • starts above the ice sheet perimeter
  • reaches a recognisable point on the ice sheet eg ice sheet summit
eg. above eastern icefall to Summit Camp = Inland Summit Camp Expedition

INNER CIRCUMNAVIGATION [Path Variant]

A Circumnavigation variant that follows the inside of a geographical feature’s perimeter, such as a frozen lake or an icecap.

An Inner Circumnavigation:

  • encircles at least 90% of a geographical feature’s expanse
  • starts and ends at the same point

Where the perimeter or area cannot be measured the route should use an 8-Point System - contact the feature's cardinal extremes (northernmost, southernmost, westernmost and easternmost) and an additional 4 points to form 8 touching points spaced evenly around the perimeter. The start/end point may be one of the 8 points.

Related variants:

  • Circumnavigation
  • Partial Circumnavigation
  • Partial Inner Circumnavigation

INNER COASTLINE [Margin]

An Antarctic Margin indicated by the landward edge of an ice shelf


A journey using Inner Coastal Margins must be on or very close to the grounding zone where ice transitions from grounded icecap/glacier to freely floating ice shelf

eg. Hercules Inlet, Messner Start

Any journey starting or ending mid-ice shelf is designated as using an Inner Coastline.

See also Outer Coastline

INNER PERIMETER [Margin]

Any part of the Greenland ice sheet edge that is above sea level.

eg. Point 660, Isortoq Hut

Any journey starting above sea level but below an inner perimeter assumes the criteria of an Inner Perimeter start.

JOURNEY

A generic term for an unmotorised polar endeavour, also referred to generically as an expedition

KEYWORDS

A Label component eg. Unsupported, Crossing, Full, Ski etc

KITE

A wind-driven device used by Snowkiters and Wind-Craft sailors

See also Snowkite

KITE-SKI

A former name for Snowkiting

LABEL

A synthesis of Keywords and an abbreviated Journey Description. Most commonly used to promote a journey.

Labels are typically but not necessarily structured as follows:

  • Full Unsupported Snowkite Crossing of Greenland
  • North Pole Ski Expedition
  • Unsupported Alternate Return Greenland Ski Expedition
  • Ski Circumnavigation of Vinson Massif
  • Unsupported Antarctic Snowkite Loop or Unsupported Snowkite Loop in/on Antarctica

LANDWARD COASTLINE [Margin]

The edge of an ice shelf that touches land. An Inner Coastline.

See also Inner Coastline and Seaward Coastline


LAST DEGREE / DOUBLE DEGREE

Highly commercialised expeditions that begin from 89 degrees (Last Degree) and 88 degrees (Double Degree) and travel to the North or South Poles. Treks of less than a degree are labelled, Within the Last Degree. Treks between 88 and 89 are labelled Within the Double Degree.

LATITUDINAL CROSSING of GREENLAND [Path Variant]

A Greenland Crossing variant where a straight line connecting the start and end points is 22.5º angle or less in relation to a line of latitude

Greenland Crossing variants:

  • may only use the descriptor pertaining to its variant
  • are not obliged to use descriptors, all can labelled Crossing of Greenland or Greenland Crossing (so long as general Path criteria are satisfied)
  • can be Full, Inland or Double

Related Greenland Crossing variants:

  • Diagonal Crossing
  • Longitudinal Crossing
  • North-South Crossing

LEVERETT GLACIER

The South Pole Overland Traverse (SPoT) road runs from McMurdo Station across the Ross Ice Shelf, up the Leverett Glacier and across the plateau to the South Pole. The road is graded at the beginning of each season and is permanently flagged. Any journey using the Leverett Glacier significantly mitigates risk and is therefore classified as Supported irrespective of whether it uses the SPoT road or not.

See also SPoT Road

LONGITUDINAL CROSSING of GREENLAND [Path Variant]

A Greenland Crossing variant where a straight line connecting the start and end points is 22.5º angle or less in relation to true north/south.

Greenland Crossing variants:

  • may only use the descriptor pertaining to its variant
  • are not obliged to use descriptors, all can labelled Crossing of Greenland or Greenland Crossing (so long as general Path criteria are satisfied)
  • can be Full, Inland or Double

Related Greenland Crossing variants:

  • Latitudinal Crossing
  • Diagonal Crossing
  • North-South Crossing

LOOP [Path]

The generic term for a Path that encircles an undefined area and may be closed or open

Loops are created from an accumulation of campsite locations including start and end

LOOP [Path Variant]

A Loop variant where the start and end points are different.

A Loop is measured by:

  • tallying its camp to camp distances including start and end points

Related variants:

  • Open Loop

MANHAUL

A traditional term for a common Mode of Travel using human power to haul supplies and equipment on a sled, most commonly on skis.

MARGINS

The start and end points of a journey, typically, but not necessarily, characterised by geography.

Margins are not always obvious, particularly in Antarctica where coastlines are often buried, fluctuating or in hazardous locations. Any journeys using ill-defined coastlines are encouraged to thoroughly research start/end points that are in or as close as possible to broadly accepted grounding zones and be prepared to provide evidence of this research. Use of start/end points selected by previous journeys is not an assurance of accuracy.

MECHANISED / MOTORISED

Journeys using engines or motors for propulsion, for any part of the journey. Such journeys are not covered by PECS

MID-OCEAN [Margin]

An Arctic Ocean Margin that is more than 50km offshore

If an Arctic Ocean journey gains a Mid-Ocean Margin by sea-borne transport it may be Full if other Margins and Path criteria are met

MID-OCEAN CROSSING [Path Variant]

A Path across the Arctic Ocean that:

  • starts and/or ends mid-ocean
  • touches the Northern Poles Line
  • travels a minimum of 1500km
  • has a distance ratio between inward and outward legs of no greater than 60:40

eg. Cape Arktichevski to North Pole to 70km off Greenland

Related variants:

  • Crossing
  • Full Crossing
  • Inland Crossing

See also Northern Poles Line

MID-OCEAN EXPEDITION [Path Variant]

A Path on the Arctic Ocean to or from the Northern Poles Line that starts or ends mid-ocean

eg. 70km off Greenland to North Pole = Mid-Ocean North Pole Expedition

Related variants:

  • Expedition
  • Full Expedition
  • Inland Expedition

MISCONDUCT

A journey that is unauthorised or environmentally reckless

MODE OF TRAVEL

An unmotorised method of polar travel

See also Supplementary Mode

NEW ROUTE

See First Route

NORTH POLE

The Geographic North Pole - 90º North. Defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.

The North Pole is a point on the Northern Poles Line.

The North Pole is also a Margin

NORTH TO SOUTH or SOUTH-TO NORTH CROSSING of GREENLAND

A Greenland Crossing variant where the start and end points are above and below latitudes 80º and 62º north respectively.

Greenland Crossing variants:

  • may only use the descriptor pertaining to its variant
  • are not obliged to use descriptors, all can labelled Crossing of Greenland or Greenland Crossing (so long as general Path criteria are satisfied)
  • can be Full, Inland or Double

Related Greenland Crossing variants:

  • Latitudinal Crossing
  • Diagonal Crossing
  • Longitudinal Crossing
  • North-South Crossing


NORTHERN POLE OF INACCESSIBILITY (POI)

The Northern Pole of Inaccessibility is the centre of the largest circle that can be drawn within the Arctic without encountering a coast - 85°48′N 176°9′W. Where a coast is imprecisely defined, the pole will be similarly imprecise.

The Northern Pole of Inaccessibility is an end point of the Northern Poles Line.

NORTHERN POLES LINE

A direct line joining the North Pole and Northern Pole of Inaccessibility.

A Crossing of the Arctic Ocean must touch any point on the NPL.

The Northern Poles Line is also a Margin.

OFF-LOADING

Off-loading is the discarding or loss of equipment, food, fuel or rubbish between the start and end points of a journey.

Off-loading that will negate Unsupported status:

  • intentional caching or abandonment of equipment, food, fuel or rubbish, whether or not later collected by a third party

Off-loading that will not negate Unsupported status:

  • unintentional, unretrievable and atypical minor loss of equipment, food, fuel or rubbish eg. a wrapper, a mitten, spillage during refuelling
  • leaving human waste and grey water in situ (except south of 89oS)
  • discarding of human waste and grey water collected south of 89oS at a facility as directed by authorities
  • burning of food, fuel or rubbish whose residue can be retrieved
NOTE: due to the sub-optimal handling of waste in Greenland all rubbish collected on Greenland journeys should be flown out

OFFSHORE [Margin]

A Margin on sea or annual sea ice that is within 50km of shore

OPEN LOOP [Path Variant]

A Loop:

  • partially encircles an undefined area
  • starts and ends at a different point

A loop is measured by tallying its camp to camp distances, including start and end points

Related variants:

  • Loop

OUTER COASTLINE [Margin]

An Antarctic coastal Margin fronted by sea or annual sea ice. A Seaward Coastline.

Sea or sea ice may not always be reachable. For example the seaward edges of many ice shelves are sheer cliff or heavy crevassing may prevent access in which case a journey should start/end as close as practically possible to sea or annual sea ice.

See also Inner Coastline

PADDLE [Mode of Travel]

A Mode of Travel that uses a watercraft propelled by paddling, usually combined with an on-ice Mode of Travel.

Paddling, Paddler, Kayaking, Kayaker, Canoeing, Canoeist

PARTIAL CIRCUMNAVIGATION [Path Variant]

A Circumnavigation variant that:

  • follows the outside of a recognisable geographical feature, and..
  • includes less than 90% of the feature’s expanse, or..
  • does not start and end at the same point

In the absence of Partial in the label, Circumnavigation is implied

Related variants:

  • Circumnavigation
  • Inner Circumnavigation
  • Partial Inner Circumnavigation

PARTIAL INNER CIRCUMNAVIGATION [Path Variant]

An Inner Circumnavigation variant that:

  • follows the inside of a recognisable geographical feature, and..
  • includes less than 90% of the feature’s expanse, or..
  • starts and ends at different points

In the absence of Partial in the label, Inner Circumnavigation is implied

Related variants:

  • Circumnavigation
  • Partial Circumnavigation
  • Inner Circumnavigation

PATH

The geometry of a journey’s route between start and end

PEDAL-DRIVE [Mode of Travel]

A Mode of Travel using a pedal-drive device for propulsion.

Pedal Driving, Pedal-Driver, Fat-Bike, Fat-Biking, Fat-Biker

PERIMETER [Margin]

Any geographical edge that forms a continuous and closed encirclement eg. the edge of an icecap, the shore of a continent, an island or ice shelf

POLAR HAT-TRICK

A Polar Hat-Trick is the completion of the three classic unmotorised polar routes.

1. Greenland Crossing or Full Crossing

2. South Pole Expedition or Crossing of Antarctica via the South Pole

3. North Pole Expedition or Crossing of the Arctic Ocean via the North Pole

PECS Expedition and Crossing path definitions apply. The Expedition or Crossing may be Full but it may not be Inland/Mid-Ocean.

RECOGNISABLE POINT / FEATURE

Any distinctive geographic or mathematical point or feature eg. Greenland Ice Divide, Pole of Inaccessibility, 3000m contour line, Vostok Station

RESUPPLY

A form of Support where a journey benefits from an external resupply, cache or depot of food and/or equipment.

RETURN EXPEDITION [Path Variant]

An Expedition variant that starts and ends at the same point or along the same line, reaching a recognisable feature or location at its furthermost point.

Related variants:

  • Full Return Expedition
  • Inland Return Expedition
  • Mid-Ocean Return Expedition

REVERSE EXPEDITION [Path Variant]

An Expedition variant that starts at the North or South Pole or other recognisable feature or location and ends at or near a coastline.

Related variants:

  • Full Reverse Expedition
  • Inland Reverse Expedition
  • Mid-Ocean Reverse Expedition


ROAD

Any type of road, vehicle track or marked route. Unsupported journeys may not travel on roads except for short distances when crossing such tracks or when following routes into, out of or around bases, stations and camps as directed by authorities.

The most prominent road is the SPoT Route in Antarctica however there are often very obvious tracks left by vehicles on other popular routes such as Union Glacier Camp to South Pole via Thiel Corner, much of it on the common Hercules Inlet to South Pole route, and the route from Novo to the plateau.

See also SPoT Road

ROUTE

A line of travel described by a journey’s Path and Margins

ROW [Mode of Travel]

A Secondary Mode of Travel that uses a watercraft propelled by oar-locked paddling, usually combined with an on-ice Mode of Travel.

Rowing, Rower.

RUN

A sub-category of Foot travel where a runner uses footwear or snowshoes, usually accompanied by a vehicle.

Running, Runner.

See also Foot


SAIL [Mode of Travel]

A Mode of Travel using a watercraft propelled by wind, usually combined with an on-ice Mode of Travel.

Sailing, sailor

SEAWARD COASTLINE [Margin]

Any coastline fronted by sea or sea ice. An outer coastline in Antarctica

See also Landward Coastline

SELF-SUPPLIED

A journey that caches food and or equipment en route that was part of the original load, and collects those same supplies on the return journey. Such a journey is Unsupported unless it fails to retrieve all of its caches, in which case it receives a Misconduct designation.

SKI [Mode of Travel]

A Primary Mode of Travel using skis for the majority of a journey. Use of footwear, crampons or flotation devices may be used for short portions of the journey.

Skiing, Skier

SKI-SAIL

A form of Snowkiting using shorter lines with less steerability. Also referred to as parawing sails or Beringer sails.

Ski-Sailing, Ski-Sailor.

SLED

A small lightweight sliding device, either on runners or having a smooth bottom surface, used for hauling supplies and equipment over snow or ice. Also referred to as a pulk/pulka (Finnish/Norwegian) or sledge but more commonly as a verb, Sledging.

Sledding.

SNOWKITE [Mode of Travel]

A Mode of Travel that uses a wind traction device to propel a skier or boarder, who may manually haul during sections of a journey.

Snowkiting, Snowkiter.

SNOWSHOE

A sub-category of Foot travel using snowshoes as a method of locomotion.

Snowshoeing, Snowshoer

See also Foot

SOLAR

A journey relying exclusively on the sun’s energy for propulsion. Not yet classified under PECS.

SOLO
  • a single person traveling alone for the entire length of a journey
  • must be breaking trail for the majority of the journey
  • only transitory encounters are permitted

In the absence of Solo in a label, Team is implied.

SOUTHERN POLE OF INACCESSIBILITY (POI)

The centre of the largest circle that can be drawn within Antarctica without encountering a coast. Where a coast is imprecisely defined, the pole will be similarly imprecise. Two Poles of Inaccessibility can be located, with and with out the ice shelves.

Without ice shelves: Soviet POI (Polyus Nedostupnosti) - 82°06′S 54°58′E

With ice shelves: Scott Polar Research Institute (SPRI) POI - 85°50′S 65°47′E

The Soviet POI is a corner point of the ACSA.

SOUTH POLE

The Geographic South Pole. Defined as the point in the Southern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.

The Geographic South Pole is a corner point of the ACSA.

The South Pole is also a Margin

SPEED RECORD

A speed record is the fastest time recorded on a route. A speed record must be:

  • a faster repeat of a previous journey or an original journey that has been repeated in a slower time
  • identical in path, route, start/end points and mode of travel
  • same gender but can be ‘person’ if fastest overall
  • be recorded using lapsed time eg. 47 days, 3 hours, 48 minutes

The original and repeated journey must be Unsupported

SPoT ROUTE

The South Pole Overland Traverse (SPoT) route runs from McMurdo Station across the Ross Ice Shelf, up the Leverett Glacier and across the plateau to the South Pole. The road is permanently flagged and graded at the start of each season.

Any similarly prepared and marked roads constructed in future will be considered Supported.

START/END POINTS

See Margins

SUPPLEMENTARY MODE

Any additional Mode of Travel (eg. Paddle) that is planned, sustained and repetitive. Supplementary Modes should be included in the label eg. Ski-Paddle

SUPPORT/SUPPORTED
  • receiving a resupply, cache or depot, either pre-placed or delivered en route
  • off-loading or discarding anything during the journey, except for human waste and grey water collected south of 89oS.
  • entering any building, aircraft or vehicle, or tent other than own, in particular base camp-style tent (except when instructed to do so as a condition of logistics support, such as at the South Pole)
  • use of any type of seasonal road, vehicle track or flagged route including travel within 2km either side of any such route
  • use of the Leverett Glacier route irrespective of whether the SPoT road is used
  • aid of a vehicle providing physical or psychological support
  • evacuation of a team member

Use of one or more of the above methods of support is Supported

TEAM

More than one person during any part of a journey.

In the absence of Solo in the label, Team is implied.

TRANSITORY ENCOUNTER

A meeting of independent teams or individuals that is unplanned, brief or infrequent (Antonyms: not planned, sustained or repetitive).

Should independent and unsupported teams be forced to camp in close proximity due to a confined camp area (eg. narrow valley, crevassed area) Encounters (including visits to tents belonging to unassociated expedition teams) should be transitory in order to maintain unsupported status.

TRAVERSE

An alternative term for a Crossing. Crossing is the preferred terminology and where Traverse is used, the Crossing definition will be applied.

UNAIDED

A generic heading that incorporates all forms of support and assistance.

A previous label used to describe a journey that did not benefit from various forms of support such as resupplies.

If Unaided is used by a journey the definition of Unsupported will be applied.

UNASSISTED

A word used previously to describe a journey that did not use wind energy, dogs or machines for propulsion.

The word and any implied definition is not recognised or used by PECS.

UNMECHANISED / UNMOTORISED

A journey that does not directly use engines or motors for propulsion, for any part of the journey

UNSUPPORTED

A Journey that:

  • does not benefit from any external resupply, cache or depot of food and/or equipment, other than self-laid depots cached during the course of the journey
  • that does not off-load or discard anything during the journey, except for human waste and grey water collected south of 89oS. Any human waste or grey water collected south of 89oS may be disposed of at the South Pole under direction of authorities.
  • that does not enter any building, aircraft or vehicle, or tent other than its own/own team, in particular base camp-style tent (except when instructed to do so as a condition of logistics support, such as at the South Pole)
  • that does not use any type of seasonal road, vehicle track or marked route, nor travel within 2km either side of any such route, except for short distances when crossing such tracks or following regulated and directed routes into, out of or around bases, stations and camps. Any journey using the Leverett Glacier route is not classified as Unsupported irrespective of whether it uses the SPoT road or not.
  • that is not aided by a vehicle providing physical or psychological support
  • that does not require any members to be evacuated

A journey must deny the use of all of the above to be classified as Unsupported.

In the absence of the term Unsupported in the Label, Supported is implied.

VARIATION of an existing route

A Variation is any new course that does not qualify as a First/New Route

eg. ski up Shackleton Glacier, exiting via Logie Glacier and continuing to South Pole

WIND-CRAFT [Mode of Travel]

A Mode of Travel that uses a wind traction device to propel a crewed craft. The craft may be manually hauled during sections of a journey. The most common sub-category of Wind-Craft is Windsled.

Wind-Craft Sailing, Wind-Craft Sailor.

WINDSLED

A sub-category of Wind-Craft developed by Spaniard Ramon Larramendi and used on many successful journeys in Antarctica and Greenland

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Term/Definition

Example

ACSA

A triangular delineation in central Antarctica that connects South Pole (Axis), the outermost Pole of Inaccessibility (Centre) and the summit of Dome Argus (Summit) to form an Area.

A Crossing of Antarctica must contact any point or points on the ACSA

The ACSA is also a Margin

ACSA Example Image
AID / AIDED

A generic term for any support or assistance used between the start and end of a journey

See also Support

ALTERNATE RETURN EXPEDITION [Path Variant]

An Expedition variant that travels out and back on a different route. The route has less than 90 degrees of arc between start and end

eg.

Ross Ice Shelf via Leverett Glacier to South Pole to Ross Ice Shelf via Axel Heiberg Glacier = Alternate Return South Pole Expedition

Ward Hunt Island to North Pole to Greenland = Alternate Return North Pole Expedition

Related variants:

  • Full Alternate Return Expedition
  • Inland Alternate Return Expedition
  • Mid-Ocean Alternate Return Expedition
ALTERNATE RETURN EXPEDITION [Path Variant] Example Image
ANTARCTICA

Antarctica is recognised by the Antarctic Treaty System as ‘the area below 60 degrees south latitude, including all ice shelves’. Ice shelves are an extension of Antarctic land ice and part of Antarctic geography and their outer perimeters, which are fronted by sea or annual sea ice, form part of the Antarctic coastline.

ANTARCTICA Example Image
ARCTIC OCEAN

The Arctic Ocean (sometimes referred to as the Arctic or Polar Sea) is located mostly in the Arctic north polar region in the middle of the Northern Hemisphere and is almost completely surrounded by Eurasia and North America

ARCTIC OCEAN Example Image
ASSISTANCE / ASSISTED

A previous label used to describe the use of wind energy, dogs or machines for propulsion

A Coastal Margin in Antarctica is any nautical or geographical coastline.

Where Coastal is used without a qualifier (Inner or Outer), Outer Coastal is implied

A Coastal Margin in Antarctica is any nautical or geographical coastline. Example Image
A Coastal Margin on the Arctic Ocean is any point on land
A Coastal Margin on the Arctic Ocean is any point on land Example Image
A Coastal Margin in Greenland is sea level
A Coastal Margin in Greenland is sea level Example Image
A Crossing of Antarctica
  • starts or ends on an inner coastline (see Inner Coastline)
  • start and end are equal to or greater than 90º of arc
  • contacts one or more points on the ACSA
  • may not start and end on the same ice shelf

eg. Hercules Inlet to South Pole to Bay of Whales = Crossing of Antarctica

A Crossing of Antarctica Example Image
A Crossing of the Arctic Ocean
  • may start or end up to 50km offshore if ice conditions dictate
  • start and end are equal to or greater than 90º of arc
  • contacts one or more points on the Northern Poles Linec
A Crossing of the Arctic Ocean Example Image
A Crossing of Greenland or its ice sheet
  • starts or ends on an inner ice sheet perimeter
  • start and end are equal to or greater than 90º of arc in relation to its central point
  • includes a minimum of 400km in linear distance

eg. Point 660 to Isortoq = Crossing of Greenland

See also Horizontal, Diagonal, Longitudinal and North-South Crossings of Greenland.

A Crossing of Greenland or its ice sheet Example Image
A Full Crossing of Antarctica:
  • starts and ends on an outer coastline
  • has a minimum of 90 degrees of arc between start and end
  • contacts one or more points on the ACSA
  • may not start and end on the same ice shelf

eg. north Berkner Island to Bay of Whales = Full Crossing of Antarctica

A Full Crossing of Antarctica: Example Image
A Full Crossing of the Arctic Ocean
  • starts and ends on land
  • has a minimum of 90 degrees of arc between start and end
  • contacts the Northern Poles Line (NPL)
  • crossings using seaborne access and exit must cover a minimum distance of 1500km

eg. Cape Arktichevski to Ward Hunt Island = Full Crossing of the Arctic Ocean

A Full Crossing of the Arctic Ocean Example Image
A Full Crossing of Greenland or its ice sheet:
  • starts or ends on an inner ice sheet perimeter
  • start and end are equal to or greater than 90o of arc in relation to its central point
  • includes a minimum of 400km in linear distance

eg. Kangerlussuaq to Isortoq = Full Crossing of Greenland

A Full Crossing of Greenland or its ice sheet: Example Image
A Full Expedition on Antarctica
  • is a One-Way, Reverse, Return or Alternate Return journey that travels to or from the South Pole or other significant point
  • starts or ends on an Outer Coastline

eg.

  • north Berkner Island to South Pole = Full South Pole Expedition
  • South Pole to Bay of Whales = Full Reverse South Pole Expedition
  • Bay of Whales to South Pole to Bay of Whales = Full Return South Pole Expedition
  • Bay of Whales to South Pole to Ross Island = Full Alternate Return South Pole Expedition
A Full Expedition on Antarctica Example Image
A Full Expedition on the Arctic Ocean
  • is a One-Way, Reverse, Return or Alternate Return journey, typically to or from the North Pole or other significant point
  • starts or ends on a coastline

eg.Cape Arktichevski to North Pole = Full North Pole ExpeditionNorth Pole to Ward Hunt Island = Full Reverse North Pole ExpeditionWard Hunt Island to North Pole to Ward Hunt Island = Full Return North Pole ExpeditionWard Hunt Island to North Pole to Greenland = Full Alternate Return North Pole Expedition

A Full Expedition on the Arctic Ocean Example Image
A Full Expedition on Greenland
  • a Greenland journey that does not cross the island or ice sheet
  • starts or ends on a coastline

eg. Kangerlussuaq to Summit Camp = Full Summit Camp Expedition

A Full Expedition on Greenland Example Image
An Inland Crossing of Antarctica:
  • starts or ends inland
  • touches the ACSA
  • covers a minimum distance of 1500km
  • has a distance ratio between inward and outward legs of no greater than 60:40

eg. Hercules Inlet to South Pole to Vostok = Inland Crossing of Antarctica

An Inland Crossing of Antarctica: Example Image
An Inland Crossing of Greenland:
  • starts or ends above the ice sheet perimeter
  • covers at least 400km

eg. Start on the ice sheet above Isortoq to Kangerlussuaq = Inland Crossing of Greenlandi

An Inland Crossing of Greenland: Example Image
An Inland Expedition on Antarctica
  • starts on the Antarctic landmass inland of any coastline
  • reaches a recognisable point eg South Pole

eg. Novo to South Pole, Thiels Corner to South Pole, Vostok to South Pole = Inland South Pole Expedition

An Inland Expedition on Antarctica Example Image
An Inland Expedition on Greenland
  • starts above the ice sheet perimeter
  • reaches a recognisable point on the ice sheet eg ice sheet summit

eg. above eastern icefall to Summit Camp = Inland Summit Camp Expedition

An Inland Expedition on Greenland Example Image
CARDINAL POINTS

The four primary directions of North, South, West and East (NSWE)

Intercardinals sit between each of the cardinals (NW, SE etc)

CARDINAL POINTS Example Image
CIRCUMNAVIGATION [Path]

The generic name for a Path that encircles a recognisable geographical feature

CIRCUMNAVIGATION [Path Variant]

A Circumnavigation Variant that encircles the outside of a geographical feature and:

  • includes at least 90% of its expanse
  • starts and ends at the same point

In the absence of Partial, Inner or Partial Inner in the label, Circumnavigation is implied

Related variants:

  • Partial Circumnavigation
  • Inner Circumnavigation
  • Partial Inner Circumnavigation
CIRCUMNAVIGATION [Path Variant] Example Image
Circumnavigation of the Arctic Ocean

A Path that touches land in Greenland, Canada, USA, Henrietta or New Siberia Islands, Severnaya Zemlya, Franz Josef Land and Svalbard. May be discontinuous (multi-season)

Circumnavigation of the Arctic Ocean Example Image
CLOSED LOOP [Path Variant]

A Loop variant where the start and end points are the same.

A Closed Loop is measured by:

  • tallying its camp to camp distances including start and end points, or...
  • calculating its total enclosed area in relation to the total area of the host feature eg Greenland Ice Sheet

Related variant:

  • Loop
CLOSED LOOP [Path Variant] Example Image
COASTAL / COASTLINE [Margin]

A generic term for any coastline that borders sea, sea ice, ice shelf or land

See also Inner Coastal and Outer Coastal

COMMUNICATIONS

Use of satellite phones, weather and ice forecasting and advisers on standby etc. are accepted forms of aid and not deemed as Support, unless used in combination with another form of aid. In many cases an expedition will not be permitted to proceed without multiple means of external communication.

Inter-team communication is not considered Support, unless used in combination with another form of aid.

Any journey communicating with the public is expected to use PECS.

See Code of Integrity for advice on communications usage.

CONTINUOUS

An unbroken journey that has not been fragmented into multiple legs, expeditions or detached seasons

See also Discontinuous

CROSSING [Path]

A generic term for a Path that crosses from one margin to an opposite margin via a recognisable point. Traverse is sometimes used as an alternative term however Crossing is the preferred terminology and where Traverse is used, the Crossing definition will be applied.

Related variants:

  • Full Crossing
  • Inland Crossing
  • Mid-Ocean Crossing
  • Double Crossing
  • Latitudinal Crossing of Greenland
  • Diagonal Crossing of Greenland
  • Longitudinal Crossing of Greenland
  • North-South Crossing of Greenland
CROSSING [Path Variant]

A Crossing variant that uses at least one Inner Coastal (Antarctica), Offshore (Arctic Ocean) or Inner Perimeter (Greenland) margin and does not use any Inland or Mid-Ocean margins

Related variants:

  • Full Crossing
  • Inland Crossing
  • Mid-Ocean Crossing
CROSSING [Path Variant] Example Image
DIAGONAL CROSSING of GREENLAND [Path Variant]

A Greenland Path variant where a straight line connecting the start and end points is greater than 22.5º angle in relation to true north/south and a line of latitude.

Greenland Crossing variants:

  • may only use the descriptor pertaining to its variant
  • are not obliged to use descriptors, all can labelled Crossing of Greenland or Greenland Crossing (so long as general Path criteria are satisfied)
  • can be Full, Inland or Double

Related Greenland Crossing variants:

  • Latitudinal Crossing
  • Longitudinal Crossing
  • North-South Crossing
DIAGONAL CROSSING of GREENLAND [Path Variant] Example Image
DISCONTINUOUS

A journey broken across multiple legs, expeditions or detached seasons. Not continuous. A discontinuous journey is Supported.

See also Continuous

DISTANCES Calculation and recording

A journey’s distance pre-expedition should be calculated from start to end and include major Path deviations.

Standard routes such as Hercules Inlet to South Pole, Ward Hunt Island to North Pole and Point 660 to Isortoq coast across Greenland have recognised distances that should be used when promoting and immortalising journeys. Slight variants in these distances are acceptable.

PECS’s standardised method of recording total distance is the tallying of camp location intervals, including start and end points. In addition journeys can record finer waypoint intervals eg. 30 minutes, however the camp to camp tally will be the accepted distance.

Round-trips to retrieve a second sled or load should not be included in the tally.

Journeys on the Arctic Ocean should record straight line distance and a camp to camp tally that will take into consideration overnight drift.

DISTINCTION

An Unsupported journey that has achieved a first gender, first route, first mode of travel or first unsupported. A Distinction may also be awarded at the discretion of the PECS Committee.

DOGSLED [Mode of Travel]

A Mode of Travel using dogs for propulsion. Dogsled participants are often on foot or skis however they may not claim Ski as a Mode of Travel as supplies are hauled by dogs.

Doglsedding, Dogsledder

DOGSLED [Mode of Travel] Example Image
DOME ARGUS (Dome A)

Situated in east Antarctica, Dome Argus is the largest ice dome in Antarctica and the summit of the Antarctic plateau. 4093m / 13,428’ (Ellipsoidal) elevation. POS 80°28.5762’S, 76°50.2296’E.

Dome Argus is a corner point of the ACSA.

DOME ARGUS (Dome A) Example Image
DOUBLE CROSSING [Path]

A Crossing variant that crosses and returns to or towards its original start point, starting and ending on an inner coastline, inner perimeter or off-shore coastline . Double Crossings cannot be Discontinuous.

eg. Point 660 to Isortoq to Point 660 = Double Crossing of Greenland

Related Crossing variants:

  • Full Double Crossing
  • Partial Double Crossing
DOUBLE CROSSING [Path] Example Image
EVACUATION

The removal of a soloist or team member by a third party during the course of a journey. Evacuation negates Unsupported status.

EXPEDITION [Generic]

Expedition is used as a generalised term for a journey, such as used in Polar Expeditions Classifications Scheme.

EXPEDITION [Path]

A Path that is not a Crossing, Circumnavigation or Loop.

Related variants:

  • Expedition
  • Reverse Expedition
  • Return Expedition
  • Alternate Return Expedition
EXPEDITION [Path Variant]

An Expedition Path variant that starts at an Inner Coastal (Antarctica), Offshore (Arctic Ocean) or Inner Perimeter (Greenland) margin and reaches a recognisable point

Related variants:

  • Full Expedition
  • Inland Expedition
  • Mid-Ocean Expeditionex
EXPEDITION [Path Variant] Example Image
Expedition on Antarctica

A journey that starts or ends on an Inner Coastline and reaches a recognisable point.

eg. Hercules Inlet to South Pole = South Pole Expedition

Expedition on Antarctica Example Image
Expedition on the Arctic Ocean

A journey that starts or ends within 50km Offshore and reaches a recognisable point

eg. 30km from Canada to North Pole = North Pole Expeditionex

Expedition on the Arctic Ocean Example Image
Expedition on Greenland

A journey that starts or ends on the ice sheet perimeter and reaches a recognisable point.

eg. Point 660 to Summit Camp = Greenland Expedition

Expedition on Greenland Example Image
FIRST MODE

The first person or expedition to complete a journey using a new Mode of Travel

FIRST PERSON

The first person or journey to complete a new route or new mode of travel, or first gender

FIRST ROUTE / NEW ROUTE

A First/New Route must have an aesthetic quality as determined by the PECS Committee

In Antarctica:

  • follows a line that is distinctly different to any existing route, or..
  • pioneers a glacier or ice stream of 40km minimum length between a coastline and the plateau

EXAMPLE - Ski from Bay of Whales to South Pole via untrodden Liv Glacier

UNACCEPTABLE EXAMPLE - Ski from Pirrit Hills (near Patriot Hills) to South Pole

On the Arctic Ocean:

  • follows a path more than 10 degrees of longitude from any other route

In Greenland

  • pioneers a primary glacier or ice stream between a coastline and the plateau, or..
  • follows a line that is distinctly different to any existing route

EXAMPLE - Ski from Petermann Glacier to Isortoq

UNACCEPTABLE EXAMPLE - Ski from Point 660 to Ikkatteq (just north of Isortoq)

FOOT [Mode of Travel]

A Mode of Travel that utilises footwear or any footwear attachment for a stepping gait such as walking or running

FOOT [Mode of Travel] Example Image
FULL

A term used to denote a Full-Length/Width Expedition or Full-Length/Width Crossing.

A historical tribute to early journeys that used ships to access start and end points.

FULL CROSSING [Path Variant]

A Crossing variant that starts and ends at opposite Outer Coastal (Antarctica) or Coastal (Arctic Ocean, Greenland) margins and passes a recognisable point

Related variants:

  • Crossing
  • Inland Crossing
  • Mid-Ocean Crossing
FULL CROSSING [Path Variant] Example Image
FULL EXPEDITION [Path Variant]

An Expedition variant that starts at an Outer Coastal (Antarctica) or Coastal (Arctic Ocean, Greenland) margin and reaches a recognisable point

Related variants:

  • Expedition
  • Inland Expedition
  • Mid-Ocean Expedition
FULL EXPEDITION [Path Variant] Example Image
GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURE

Any recognisable feature that can be circumnavigated in its entirety eg. icecap, mountain range, ice dome at 3000m elevation, island, archipelago etc.

GREENLAND

Greenland is the world's largest island, located between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans. Three-quarters of Greenland is covered by the world’s second largest ice sheet.

GREENLAND DYE STATIONS

Abandoned Distant Early Warning (DEW) Cold War radar stations. The DYE2 and DYE3 stations in Greenland offer historical interest and brief visits inside are not considered Support unless used as a weather shelter or removing artefacts (which could be used to repair equipment).

GREENLAND ICE SHEET

The ice sheet covering much of Greenland. Most journeys choose only to cross the ice sheet, a considerably less complex task than crossing the island coast to coast.

GROUNDING LINE / GROUNDING ZONE

A Grounding Line is the delineation at which glaciers start to float, however it is more of a zone due to tidal fluctuations.

A Grounding Zone is the region where ice transitions from grounded icecap to freely floating ice shelf, typically over several kilometres. A journey using Inner Coastal Margins must be within the Grounding Zone.

See also Margins

GUIDED

A guided journey is one that uses a guide or guides to manage and lead a team while the journey is underway. Guides often plan unique and committing journeys for their clients and as such a Guided journey is not classified as Supported unless it falls within Supported definitions. A Guided journey must make reference to its guided status in either the Label or Description.

ICE CAP

Generic term for a covering of ice over a large area

ICE SHEET

Geographical term for the world’s largest ice sheets including East Antarctic Ice Sheet, West Antarctic Ice Sheet and Greenland Ice Sheet.

ICE DIVIDE OF GREENLAND

The Greenland Ice Divide is the watershed ridge that runs north to south and divides the ice sheet into west and east.

The northern perimeter is at 81.00N 40.00W and 2000m elevation, the southern perimeter is at DMS 61o55’48”N, 44o49’48”W; DMM 61o55.8’, 44o40.8: DM 61.93 -44.68 and 2500m elevation. These points should be rounded within a 5km radius.

ICE DIVIDE OF GREENLAND Example Image
ICE ROAD

Any type of road, vehicle track or marked route. Unsupported journeys may not travel on roads except for short distances when crossing such tracks or when following routes into, out of or around bases, stations and camps as directed by authorities.

The most prominent ice road is the SPoT Ice Road in Antarctica however there are often very obvious tracks left by vehicles on other popular routes such as Union Glacier Camp to South Pole via Thiel Corner, much of it on the common Hercules Inlet to South Pole route, and the route from Novo to the plateau.

See also Road

ICE SHELF

A floating sheet of fresh-water ice permanently or semi-permanently attached to a land mass. Ice shelves are an extension of land ice and their outer perimeters form part of the seaward coastline. Ice shelves also have a landward or inner coastline where they connect to land.

Most of the world's ice shelves are in Antarctica, marked in blue.

ICE SHELF Example Image
INLAND ICE

A term often used to describe the Greenland Ice Sheet

INLAND / INSIDE [Margin]

A Margin in Antarctica on land that does not start or end on any coastline and is on land.

A Margin in Greenland that starts above the ice sheet perimeter

INLAND CROSSING [Path Variant]

A Crossing variant that uses at least one Inland margin

Related variants:

  • Crossing
  • Full Crossing
  • Mid-Ocean Crossing
INLAND CROSSING [Path Variant] Example Image
INLAND EXPEDITION [Path Variant]

An Expedition variant that starts at an Inland (Antarctica and Greenland) margin and reaches a recognisable point.

Related variants:

  • Expedition
  • Full Expedition
  • Mid-Ocean Expedition
INLAND EXPEDITION [Path Variant] Example Image
INNER CIRCUMNAVIGATION [Path Variant]

A Circumnavigation variant that follows the inside of a geographical feature’s perimeter, such as a frozen lake or an icecap.

An Inner Circumnavigation:

  • encircles at least 90% of a geographical feature’s expanse
  • starts and ends at the same point

Where the perimeter or area cannot be measured the route should use an 8-Point System - contact the feature's cardinal extremes (northernmost, southernmost, westernmost and easternmost) and an additional 4 points to form 8 touching points spaced evenly around the perimeter. The start/end point may be one of the 8 points.

Related variants:

  • Circumnavigation
  • Partial Circumnavigation
  • Partial Inner Circumnavigation
INNER CIRCUMNAVIGATION [Path Variant] Example Image
INNER COASTLINE [Margin]

An Antarctic Margin indicated by the landward edge of an ice shelf

A journey using Inner Coastal Margins must be on or very close to the grounding zone where ice transitions from grounded icecap/glacier to freely floating ice shelf

eg. Hercules Inlet, Messner Start

Any journey starting or ending mid-ice shelf is designated as using an Inner Coastline.

See also Outer Coastline

INNER COASTLINE [Margin] Example Image
INNER PERIMETER [Margin]

Any part of the Greenland ice sheet edge that is above sea level.

eg. Point 660, Isortoq Hut

Any journey starting above sea level but below an inner perimeter assumes the criteria of an Inner Perimeter start.

INNER PERIMETER [Margin] Example Image
JOURNEY

A generic term for an unmotorised polar endeavour, also referred to generically as an expedition

KEYWORDS

A Label component eg. Unsupported, Crossing, Full, Ski etc

KITE

A wind-driven device used by Snowkiters and Wind-Craft sailors

See also Snowkite

KITE-SKI

A former name for Snowkiting

LABEL

A synthesis of Keywords and an abbreviated Journey Description. Most commonly used to promote a journey.

Labels are typically but not necessarily structured as follows:

  • Full Unsupported Snowkite Crossing of Greenland
  • North Pole Ski Expedition
  • Unsupported Alternate Return Greenland Ski Expedition
  • Ski Circumnavigation of Vinson Massif
  • Unsupported Antarctic Snowkite Loop or Unsupported Snowkite Loop in/on Antarctica
LANDWARD COASTLINE [Margin]

The edge of an ice shelf that touches land. An Inner Coastline.

See also Inner Coastline and Seaward Coastline

LAST DEGREE / DOUBLE DEGREE

Highly commercialised expeditions that begin from 89 degrees (Last Degree) and 88 degrees (Double Degree) and travel to the North or South Poles. Treks of less than a degree are labelled, Within the Last Degree. Treks between 88 and 89 are labelled Within the Double Degree.

LATITUDINAL CROSSING of GREENLAND [Path Variant]

A Greenland Crossing variant where a straight line connecting the start and end points is 22.5º angle or less in relation to a line of latitude

Greenland Crossing variants:

  • may only use the descriptor pertaining to its variant
  • are not obliged to use descriptors, all can labelled Crossing of Greenland or Greenland Crossing (so long as general Path criteria are satisfied)
  • can be Full, Inland or Double

Related Greenland Crossing variants:

  • Diagonal Crossing
  • Longitudinal Crossing
  • North-South Crossing
LATITUDINAL CROSSING of GREENLAND [Path Variant] Example Image
LEVERETT GLACIER

The South Pole Overland Traverse (SPoT) road runs from McMurdo Station across the Ross Ice Shelf, up the Leverett Glacier and across the plateau to the South Pole. The road is graded at the beginning of each season and is permanently flagged. Any journey using the Leverett Glacier significantly mitigates risk and is therefore classified as Supported irrespective of whether it uses the SPoT road or not.

See also SPoT Ice Road

LONGITUDINAL CROSSING of GREENLAND [Path Variant]

A Greenland Crossing variant where a straight line connecting the start and end points is 22.5º angle or less in relation to true north/south.

Greenland Crossing variants:

  • may only use the descriptor pertaining to its variant
  • are not obliged to use descriptors, all can labelled Crossing of Greenland or Greenland Crossing (so long as general Path criteria are satisfied)
  • can be Full, Inland or Double

Related Greenland Crossing variants:

  • Latitudinal Crossing
  • Diagonal Crossing
  • North-South Crossing
LONGITUDINAL CROSSING of GREENLAND [Path Variant] Example Image
LOOP [Path]

The generic term for a Path that encircles an undefined area and may be closed or open

Loops are created from an accumulation of campsite locations including start and end

LOOP [Path Variant]

A Loop variant where the start and end points are different.

A Loop is measured by:

  • tallying its camp to camp distances including start and end points

Related variants:

  • Open Loop
LOOP [Path Variant] Example Image
MANHAUL

A traditional term for a common Mode of Travel using human power to haul supplies and equipment on a sled, most commonly on skis.

MARGINS

The start and end points of a journey, typically, but not necessarily, characterised by geography.

Margins are not always obvious, particularly in Antarctica where coastlines are often buried, fluctuating or in hazardous locations. Any journeys using ill-defined coastlines are encouraged to thoroughly research start/end points that are in or as close as possible to broadly accepted grounding zones and be prepared to provide evidence of this research. Use of start/end points selected by previous journeys is not an assurance of accuracy.

MECHANISED / MOTORISED

Journeys using engines or motors for propulsion, for any part of the journey. Such journeys are not covered by PECS

MID-OCEAN [Margin]

An Arctic Ocean Margin that is more than 50km offshore

If an Arctic Ocean journey gains a Mid-Ocean Margin by sea-borne transport it may be Full if other Margins and Path criteria are metm

MID-OCEAN [Margin] Example Image
MID-OCEAN CROSSING [Path Variant]

A Path across the Arctic Ocean that:

  • starts and/or ends mid-ocean
  • touches the Northern Poles Line
  • travels a minimum of 1500km
  • has a distance ratio between inward and outward legs of no greater than 60:40

eg. Cape Arktichevski to North Pole to 70km off Greenland

Related variants:

  • Crossing
  • Full Crossing
  • Inland Crossing

See also Northern Poles Line

MID-OCEAN CROSSING [Path Variant] Example Image
MID-OCEAN EXPEDITION [Path Variant]

A Path on the Arctic Ocean to or from the Northern Poles Line that starts or ends mid-ocean

eg. 70km off Greenland to North Pole = Mid-Ocean North Pole Expedition

Related variants:

  • Expedition
  • Full Expedition
  • Inland Expedition
MID-OCEAN EXPEDITION [Path Variant] Example Image
MISCONDUCT

A journey that is unauthorised or environmentally reckless

MODE OF TRAVEL

An unmotorised method of polar travel

See also Supplementary Mode

NEW ROUTE

See First Route

NORTH POLE

The Geographic North Pole - 90º North. Defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.

The North Pole is a point on the Northern Poles Line.

The North Pole is also a Margin

NORTH POLE Example Image
NORTH TO SOUTH or SOUTH-TO NORTH CROSSING of GREENLAND

A Greenland Crossing variant where the start and end points are above and below latitudes 80º and 62º north respectively.

Greenland Crossing variants:

  • may only use the descriptor pertaining to its variant
  • are not obliged to use descriptors, all can labelled Crossing of Greenland or Greenland Crossing (so long as general Path criteria are satisfied)
  • can be Full, Inland or Double

Related Greenland Crossing variants:

  • Latitudinal Crossing
  • Diagonal Crossing
  • Longitudinal Crossing
  • North-South Crossing
NORTH TO SOUTH or SOUTH-TO NORTH CROSSING of GREENLAND Example Image
NORTHERN POLE OF INACCESSIBILITY (POI)

The Northern Pole of Inaccessibility is the centre of the largest circle that can be drawn within the Arctic without encountering a coast - 85°48′N 176°9′W. Where a coast is imprecisely defined, the pole will be similarly imprecise.

The Northern Pole of Inaccessibility is an end point of the Northern Poles Line.

NORTHERN POLE OF INACCESSIBILITY (POI) Example Image
NORTHERN POLES LINE

A direct line joining the North Pole and Northern Pole of Inaccessibility.

A Crossing of the Arctic Ocean must touch any point on the NPL.

The Northern Poles Line is also a Margin.

NORTHERN POLES LINE Example Image
OFF-LOADING

Off-loading is the discarding or loss of equipment, food, fuel or rubbish between the start and end points of a journey.

Off-loading that will negate Unsupported status:

  • intentional caching or abandonment of equipment, food, fuel or rubbish, whether or not later collected by a third party

Off-loading that will not negate Unsupported status:

  • unintentional, unretrievable and atypical minor loss of equipment, food, fuel or rubbish eg. a wrapper, a mitten, spillage during refuelling
  • leaving human waste and grey water in situ (except south of 89oS)
  • discarding of human waste and grey water collected south of 89oS at a facility as directed by authorities
  • burning of food, fuel or rubbish whose residue can be retrieved

NOTE: due to the sub-optimal handling of waste in Greenland all rubbish collected on Greenland journeys should be flown out

OFFSHORE [Margin]

A Margin on sea or annual sea ice that is within 50km of shore

OFFSHORE [Margin] Example Image
OUTER COASTLINE [Margin]

An Antarctic coastal Margin fronted by sea or annual sea ice. A Seaward Coastline.

Sea or sea ice may not always be reachable. For example the seaward edges of many ice shelves are sheer cliff or heavy crevassing may prevent access in which case a journey should start/end as close as practically possible to sea or annual sea ice.

See also Inner Coastline

OUTER COASTLINE [Margin] Example Image
PADDLE [Mode of Travel]

A Mode of Travel that uses a watercraft propelled by paddling, usually combined with an on-ice Mode of Travel.

Paddling, Paddler, Kayaking, Kayaker, Canoeing, Canoeist

PADDLE [Mode of Travel] Example Image
PARTIAL CIRCUMNAVIGATION [Path Variant]

A Circumnavigation variant that:

  • follows the outside of a recognisable geographical feature, and..
  • includes less than 90% of the feature’s expanse, or..
  • does not start and end at the same point

In the absence of Partial in the label, Circumnavigation is implied

Related variants:

  • Circumnavigation
  • Inner Circumnavigation
  • Partial Inner Circumnavigationc
PARTIAL CIRCUMNAVIGATION [Path Variant] Example Image
PARTIAL INNER CIRCUMNAVIGATION [Path Variant]

An Inner Circumnavigation variant that:

  • follows the inside of a recognisable geographical feature, and..
  • includes less than 90% of the feature’s expanse, or..
  • starts and ends at different points

In the absence of Partial in the label, Inner Circumnavigation is implied

Related variants:

  • Circumnavigation
  • Partial Circumnavigation
  • Inner Circumnavigation
PARTIAL INNER CIRCUMNAVIGATION [Path Variant] Example Image
PATH

The geometry of a journey’s route between start and end

PEDAL-DRIVE [Mode of Travel]

A Mode of Travel using a pedal-drive device for propulsion.

Pedal Driving, Pedal-Driver, Fat-Bike, Fat-Biking, Fat-Biker

PEDAL-DRIVE [Mode of Travel] Example Image
PERIMETER [Margin]

Any geographical edge that forms a continuous and closed encirclement eg. the edge of an icecap, the shore of a continent, an island or ice shelf

POLAR HAT-TRICK

A Polar Hat-Trick is the completion of the three classic unmotorised polar routes.

1. Greenland Crossing or Full Crossing

2. South Pole Expedition or Crossing of Antarctica via the South Pole

3. North Pole Expedition or Crossing of the Arctic Ocean via the North Pole

PECS Expedition and Crossing path definitions apply. The Expedition or Crossing may be Full but it may not be Inland/Mid-Ocean.

RECOGNISABLE POINT / FEATURE

Any distinctive geographic or mathematical point or feature eg. Greenland Ice Divide, Pole of Inaccessibility, 3000m contour line, Vostok Station

RESUPPLY

A form of Support where a journey benefits from an external resupply, cache or depot of food and/or equipment.

RETURN EXPEDITION [Path Variant]

An Expedition variant that starts and ends at the same point or along the same line, reaching a recognisable feature or location at its furthermost point.

Related variants:

  • Full Return Expedition
  • Inland Return Expedition
  • Mid-Ocean Return Expedition
RETURN EXPEDITION [Path Variant] Example Image
REVERSE EXPEDITION [Path Variant]

An Expedition variant that starts at the North or South Pole or other recognisable feature or location and ends at or near a coastline.

Related variants:

  • Full Reverse Expedition
  • Inland Reverse Expedition
  • Mid-Ocean Reverse Expedition
REVERSE EXPEDITION [Path Variant] Example Image
ROAD

Any type of road, vehicle track or marked route. Unsupported journeys may not travel on roads except for short distances when crossing such tracks or when following routes into, out of or around bases, stations and camps as directed by authorities.

The most prominent ice road is the SPoT Ice Road in Antarctica however there are often very obvious tracks left by vehicles on other popular routes such as Union Glacier Camp to South Pole via Thiel Corner, much of it on the common Hercules Inlet to South Pole route, and the route from Novo to the plateau.

See also Ice Road

ROUTE

A line of travel described by a journey’s Path and Margins

ROW [Mode of Travel]

A Secondary Mode of Travel that uses a watercraft propelled by oar-locked paddling, usually combined with an on-ice Mode of Travel.

Rowing, Rower

ROW [Mode of Travel] Example Image
RUN

A sub-category of Foot travel where a runner uses footwear or snowshoes, usually accompanied by a vehicle.

Running, Runner.

See also Foot

SAIL [Mode of Travel]

A Mode of Travel using a watercraft propelled by wind, usually combined with an on-ice Mode of Travel.

Sailing, sailor

SAIL [Mode of Travel] Example Image
SEAWARD COASTLINE [Margin]

Any coastline fronted by sea or sea ice. An outer coastline in Antarctica

See also Landward Coastline

SEAWARD COASTLINE [Margin] Example Image
SELF-SUPPLIED

A journey that caches food and or equipment en route that was part of the original load, and collects those same supplies on the return journey. Such a journey is Unsupported unless it fails to retrieve all of its caches, in which case it receives a Misconduct designation.

SKI [Mode of Travel]

A Primary Mode of Travel using skis for the majority of a journey. Use of footwear, crampons or flotation devices may be used for short portions of the journey.

Skiing, Skier

SKI [Mode of Travel] Example Image
SKI-SAIL

A form of Snowkiting using shorter lines with less steerability. Also referred to as parawing sails or Beringer sails.

Ski-Sailing, Ski-Sailor

SLED

A small lightweight sliding device, either on runners or having a smooth bottom surface, used for hauling supplies and equipment over snow or ice. Also referred to as a pulk/pulka (Finnish/Norwegian) or sledge but more commonly as a verb, Sledging.

Sledding.

SNOWKITE [Mode of Travel]

A Mode of Travel that uses a wind traction device to propel a skier or boarder, who may manually haul during sections of a journey.

Snowkiting, Snowkiter

SNOWKITE [Mode of Travel] Example Image
SNOWSHOE

A sub-category of Foot travel using snowshoes as a method of locomotion.

Snowshoeing, Snowshoer

See also Foot

SOLAR

A journey relying exclusively on the sun’s energy for propulsion. Not yet classified under PECS.

SOLO
  • a single person traveling alone for the entire length of a journey
  • must be breaking trail for the majority of the journey
  • only transitory encounters are permitted

In the absence of Solo in a label, Team is implied.

SOUTHERN POLE OF INACCESSIBILITY (POI)

The centre of the largest circle that can be drawn within Antarctica without encountering a coast. Where a coast is imprecisely defined, the pole will be similarly imprecise. Two Poles of Inaccessibility can be located, with and with out the ice shelves.

Without ice shelves: Soviet POI (Polyus Nedostupnosti) - 82°06′S 54°58′E

With ice shelves: Scott Polar Research Institute (SPRI) POI - 85°50′S 65°47′E

The Soviet POI is a corner point of the ACSA.

SOUTHERN POLE OF INACCESSIBILITY (POI) Example Image
SOUTH POLE

The Geographic South Pole. Defined as the point in the Southern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.

The Geographic South Pole is a corner point of the ACSA.

The South Pole is also a Margin

SOUTH POLE Example Image
SPEED RECORD

A speed record is the fastest time recorded on a route. A speed record must be:

  • a faster repeat of a previous journey or an original journey that has been repeated in a slower time
  • identical in path, route, start/end points and mode of travel
  • same gender but can be ‘person’ if fastest overall
  • be recorded using lapsed time eg. 47 days, 3 hours, 48 minutes

The original and repeated journey must be Unsupported

SPoT Ice Road

The South Pole Overland Traverse (SPoT) ice road runs from McMurdo Station across the Ross Ice Shelf, up the Leverett Glacier and across the plateau to the South Pole. The road is permanently flagged and graded at the start of each season.

Any similarly prepared and marked roads constructed in future will be considered Supported.

SPoT Ice Road Example Image
START/END POINTS

See Margins

SUPPLEMENTARY MODE

Any additional Mode of Travel (eg. Paddle) that is planned, sustained and repetitive. Supplementary Modes should be included in the label eg. Ski-Paddle

SUPPORT/SUPPORTED
  • receiving a resupply, cache or depot, either pre-placed or delivered en route
  • off-loading or discarding anything during the journey, except for human waste and grey water collected south of 89oS.
  • entering any building, aircraft or vehicle, or tent other than own, in particular base camp-style tent (except when instructed to do so as a condition of logistics support, such as at the South Pole)
  • use of any type of seasonal road, vehicle track or flagged route including travel within 2km either side of any such route
  • use of the Leverett Glacier route irrespective of whether the SPoT road is used
  • aid of a vehicle providing physical or psychological support
  • evacuation of a team member

Use of one or more of the above methods of support is Supported

TEAM

More than one person during any part of a journey.

In the absence of Solo in the label, Team is implied.

TRANSITORY ENCOUNTER

A meeting of independent teams or individuals that is unplanned, brief or infrequent (Antonyms: not planned, sustained or repetitive).

Should independent and unsupported teams be forced to camp in close proximity due to a confined camp area (eg. narrow valley, crevassed area) Encounters (including visits to tents belonging to unassociated expedition teams) should be transitory in order to maintain unsupported status.

TRAVERSE

An alternative term for a Crossing. Crossing is the preferred terminology and where Traverse is used, the Crossing definition will be applied.

UNAIDED

A generic heading that incorporates all forms of support and assistance.

A previous label used to describe a journey that did not benefit from various forms of support such as resupplies.

If Unaided is used by a journey the definition of Unsupported will be applied.

UNASSISTED

A word used previously to describe a journey that did not use wind energy, dogs or machines for propulsion.

The word and any implied definition is not recognised or used by PECS.

UNMECHANISED / UNMOTORISED

A journey that does not directly use engines or motors for propulsion, for any part of the journey

UNSUPPORTED

A Journey that:

  • does not benefit from any external resupply, cache or depot of food and/or equipment, other than self-laid depots cached during the course of the journey
  • that does not off-load or discard anything during the journey, except for human waste and grey water collected south of 89oS. Any human waste or grey water collected south of 89oS may be disposed of at the South Pole under direction of authorities.
  • that does not enter any building, aircraft or vehicle, or tent other than its own/own team, in particular base camp-style tent (except when instructed to do so as a condition of logistics support, such as at the South Pole)
  • that does not use any type of seasonal road, vehicle track or marked route, nor travel within 2km either side of any such route, except for short distances when crossing such tracks or following regulated and directed routes into, out of or around bases, stations and camps. Any journey using the Leverett Glacier route is not classified as Unsupported irrespective of whether it uses the SPoT road or not.
  • that is not aided by a vehicle providing physical or psychological support
  • that does not require any members to be evacuated

A journey must deny the use of all of the above to be classified as Unsupported.

In the absence of the term Unsupported in the Label, Supported is implied.

VARIATION of an existing route

A Variation is any new course that does not qualify as a First/New Route

eg. ski up Shackleton Glacier, exiting via Logie Glacier and continuing to South Pole

WIND-CRAFT [Mode of Travel]

A Mode of Travel that uses a wind traction device to propel a crewed craft. The craft may be manually hauled during sections of a journey. The most common sub-category of Wind-Craft is Windsled.

Wind-Craft Sailing, Wind-Craft Sailor

WIND-CRAFT [Mode of Travel] Example Image
WINDSLED

A sub-category of Wind-Craft developed by Spaniard Ramon Larramendi and used on many successful journeys in Antarctica and Greenland

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